Semiconductors, often called integrated circuits (ICs), are essential electrical devices or chips that possess both conductive and insulative attributes. Conductors are the materials that conduct electricity, whereas insulators do not conduct electricity. Semiconductors feature these properties under certain circumstances and sit between these two materials. Semiconductors are known to be the brain of modern electronics, with a wide variety of different applications.
Materials for Semiconductors:
These microchips are typically designed from highly solid-state, durable, and pure elements, such as silicon, boron, carbon, germanium, selenium, sulfur, tellurium, or compounds such as indium antimonide or gallium arsenide. Additionally, they are doped by adding minute amounts of impurities to alter their conductivity attributes that trigger significant changes in their conductive properties.
Key Specifications and Benefits of Semiconductors:
Semiconductors feature diverse benefits and key attributes, such as:
- Serves as an insulator and conductor with high efficiency.
- They can be doped for energy conversion to make Switches and amplifiers.
- Feature fewer power losses.
- Lower resistivity than insulators and higher resistivity than conductors.
- They are exceptionally reliable, have a long shelf-life, are dependable, and are compact.
- Offer low cost and regulated conductivity.
Typical Types of Semiconductor Devices:
Numerous semiconductor devices are mainly classified into two major categories given below.
Discrete semiconductors are simple individual components with a single function within circuits. Rectifiers, TRIACs, MOSFETs, Diodes, and LEDs are common examples.
Integrated Circuits (ICs)
These electronic components integrate various circuit elements into a single package. Microcontrollers, Amplifiers, Voltage Regulators, Sensor ICs, Power management ICs, Microprocessors, Interface ICs, and Analogue-to-Digital Converters are examples of ICs.
Applications of Semiconductors:
As in the modern era, it isn't easy to imagine life without semiconductor devices, as they are integral components of electronic devices. They are essential components required for manufacturing various electronic components, such as transistors and electrodes. They are also found in industrial and commercial environments along with other uses in different applications, such as:
- Video games
- 3D Printers
- Aerospace Ships
- Solar cells
- Microchips, transistors
- Temperature sensors
- Advanced medical diagnostic equipment, and much more.