Buck converters, or step-down converters, are special power supply DC-DC converters designed to convert or buck high voltage from their input into output. These converters are called buck converters due to their integral inductor’s supply voltage-bucking or opposing properties to input voltages. They are comprised of core capacitors and inductors required for their functions.
Furthermore, they are the core integral components found in various electronic devices with countless applications for power regulation. In addition, their efficient conversion functionality offers reduced heat and extended battery life.
How do buck converters work?
Buck converters also function as switches to turn ON or OFF the circuit, generating a square wave. Buck converters feature a capacitor and an inductor for the smooth functioning of square waves and valuable power. The capacitor resists any sudden voltage variation while the inductor smooths the current flow, resulting in a smooth voltage output of low wave.
Furthermore, to enhance the efficiency of a buck converter, incorporating another diode or switch parallel to the inductor compensates for the inductor property. The inductor resists current changes, so it protects the switching transistors from damage and overloads.
Buck converters also feature extra circuits (a closed-loop control scheme) for regularly monitoring the output voltage by adjusting the switch’s duty cycle.
Types of Buck converters:
These converters are classified into three types as given below.
These are special converters designed to convert DC input voltage into an output voltage. A power audio amplifier is the best example where the speaker’s loudness depends on the voltage increase or decrease.
It is a subtype of inverter and a part of the converter family designed to be used in UPS but up to certain limits.
They are designed for various devices, such as rectifiers in battery chargers. These converters are required to convert them into DC waves and provide a voltage of 220.
What are the key specifications and benefits of buck converters?
The Buck Converter offers a wide range of benefits due to its simple design and efficiency of over 90%. Furthermore, they are cost-effective, with high power levels and reduced heat. They are required for linear voltage regulators for their output noise generation to overcome this problem.
Where are buck converters used?
Buck converters are mainly found in various devices with a wide range of uses, such as:
- PCs and laptops
- Automotive Solutions
- Battery Chargers
- Quad Copters
- Load Converters
- USB on the go
- Solar Chargers
- Audio amplifiers.